Before the invention of modern contraceptive methods, most of the products in use were ineffective and did more to delay pregnancy than prevent it.
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- Before the invention of modern contraceptive methods, most of the products in use were ineffective and did more to delay pregnancy than prevent it.
- Methods used included inserting a vinegar-soaked sponge into the vagina and reusable rubber condoms that were thicker and less comfortable than today’s male condoms.
- There are now several contraceptive methods that rarely fail when used correctly.
With access, it’s easy to take birth control methods for granted today. But important discoveries over the past century or so have changed women’s lives.
Prior to the invention of modern intrauterine devices (IUDs) and hormonal contraceptives, most products were ineffective and did more to delay pregnancy than prevent it.
A turning point came when contraceptives became available in the early 1960s. It has a very low failure rate of less than 1% for her when used properly, ensuring that women are in control of their contraception.
The pill can have serious side effects, but for many women the experience is far less unpleasant than many of its predecessors.
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This article is part of the Women’s Health Matters series on the health and well-being of women and girls around the world. From menopause to miscarriage to pleasure and pain, the articles in this series delve into the full spectrum of women’s health issues, providing valuable information, insight and resources for women of all ages.
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1. Reusable condoms
People have used sheaths since at least the 17th century, primarily to ward off sexually transmitted infections. Initially, these were made from natural materials such as animal intestines and linen.
Only a few years after the invention of synthetic rubber (1844), rubber condoms were created. They were designed to be washed and reused, but as a result were thicker and less comfortable than today’s male condoms.
Disposable latex condoms were not invented until the 1930s. These were thinner, more comfortable and of course he only used them once. Later that decade, a U.S. court overturned a ban on the sale of “immoral goods,” making condom use even more prevalent.
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Acid kills sperm, so one traditional method of home birth control was to insert a sponge soaked in vinegar into the vagina. Specially designed sponges became commercially available in his early 20th century and contained chemical spermicides.
Variations of spermicidal sponges are still available. However, she is now less than 1% of women in the UK using sponges.
A common failure rate is about 12% to 24% per year, especially for young women. Younger women are generally more fertile than older women, so they are more likely to get pregnant even with less effective methods.
3. Diaphragm and cap
Its miniature products, called diaphragms and caps, were invented in the early 19th century. Like condoms, they act as a physical barrier to sperm and, like sponges, are also used with chemical spermicides. They should be inserted into the vagina before sex and remain in place for at least six hours afterward so that the spermicide can kill the sperm.
Caps and diaphragms were widely used in the United States and Europe until World War II. However, the typical failure rate for young women using these methods is about 12%. As a result, less than 1% of her women worldwide use these today.
The barrier method has a high failure rate in part because it does not stop women from ovulating. If the sperm manages to pass this barrier, the chances of fertilization are high. Another drawback of hers is that they are difficult to fit and have to be put on before sex. At this point, she probably wants to think about other things.
4. Cleaning with preservatives
Vaginal flushing, often with an antiseptic solution after intercourse, was used as a method of contraception in the early 20th century. Washing does not affect sperm that have already started passing through the cervix. Therefore, the efficacy of vaginal cleaning was very low.
Today, medical experts strongly discourage douching as it can adversely affect the vaginal flora (the natural protective bacteria inside the vagina) and cause vaginal irritation and infections.
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5. Silkworm intestine IUD
Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are still popular, but they don’t always work as well as the newer ones.
Early intrauterine methods were based on the (partially correct) belief that any device placed in the uterus would likely interfere with the implantation and development of a fertilized egg in the uterus. . In the 19th century, the wishbone pessary (so called because of its shape) was used to prevent pregnancy.
These devices had two arms that protruded through the cervix and into the vagina, with a button end that covered the cervix. It’s hard to imagine that these were comfortable.
Polish gynecologist Richard Richter published a paper in 1909 describing a method in which a silkworm intestinal ring with two protruding strings was inserted into a patient’s uterus so that it could be removed. At the time, many countries had laws against promoting contraception, so many gynecologists used their own versions of such devices with caution.
The Graefenberg Ring replaced the silkworm intestine with a metal alloy ring in the 1920s. German gynecologist Ernst Grafenberg first tried pure silver, but his body absorbed the silver, turning the woman’s gums blue.
IUDs of all sorts of materials and shapes, from leaf-shaped to helix-shaped, were used throughout the 50’s, 60’s and 70’s until researchers realized copper increased the effectiveness of the device. . By the 1970s, there were approximately 70 intrauterine devices on the market in the United States.
However, one of these copper coils, the infamous Darcon Shield, has allowed bacteria to rise into the uterus due to the design of the thread used to retrieve it. This led to an increase in the number of infected people, and in the 1970s, the acceptance of intrauterine contraception declined sharply.
Modern intrauterine devices (IUDs) fit completely inside the uterus, contain copper or slow-release progesterone-type hormones, and are much safer and more effective than older devices. Infection with an IUD is now rare, but can occur during the first few weeks after insertion. Currently, the failure rate of hormone coils and copper coils are both less than 1%.
Although there are now several methods of birth control that almost never go wrong when used correctly, women still struggle to find the one that works for them. New research focuses on reducing contraceptive side effects, but in the meantime governments can help people get better and faster access to contraceptives and choose the method that works best for them. should invest in sexual health services to provide advice for
Susan WalkerBirth Control, Reproductive and Sexual Health Readers, Anglia Ruskin University
This article is reprinted from conversation Under Creative Commons License.read Original work.